Onion crops are characterized by good germination and rapid growth. However, the harvest may decline or even die due to diseases and pests. Timely prevention and adherence to landing technology significantly reduces risks. In this article we will examine the main issues of most gardeners: why the tips of the feathers on the onions may turn yellow, which pests can spoil the crop in spring or autumn. And also what to do and how to deal with misfortunes.
The main diseases of onion and the fight against them by different means
Planting and growing onions in a small area or on a huge plantation is not difficultif you follow the process. However, in addition to the planned activities, it may be necessary to treat the crop from pests and insects. Ignore the signs of damage to the plant is not worth it, because in just a few days the beds can significantly thin out. And to cope with the neglected form of the disease or the mass colonization of insects is difficult enough, not to do without the use of chemistry. Therefore, it is recommended that preventive procedures be included in the onion care schedule to prevent serious problems.Sick onion
Peronosporosis is one of the types of fungal infection, the pathogen is perfectly preserved on onion peel, seeds. The transition of bacteria to the active phase occurs when creating favorable conditions that are characterized by high humidity and positive temperature conditions. The disease can be recognized by the following features:
- the formation of yellowish-green oily spots on the surface of the leaves;
- a gray-purple raid settles under feathers;
- increase in the parameters of spots;
- dying sheets.
The methods of struggle consist in processing the culture and the soil under it with special or home-made solutions. Of the drugs are well proven:
- Fitosporin-M for onions and garlic;
There are folk methods, which are preferred by most gardeners:
- a solution of 9 liters of water, 1 liter of nonfat milk, 10 drops of iodine;
- weak solution (slightly pink) potassium permanganate;
- infusion of onion peel;
- a mixture of water (9 l) and serum (1 l);
- ash infusion (8 liters of boiling water half a bucket of ash).
What does gray rot look like?
The infection is well preserved on the planting material, infecting the soil and, accordingly, the entire crop through loose closures. When pressing on the turnip, the skin bends in the neck, and on the surface you can see a gray patina.
The fight against the disease is in the following activities:
- disinfection of sevka before landing;
- soil enrichment with phosphate-potash fertilizer;
- timely removal from the plantation of damaged plants;
- moderate watering and soil moisture control;
- correct collection of root crops;
- airing and drying onions after assembly;
- creating storage conditions for the crop;
- periodic bulkhead in order to remove rotted turnips.
Bacteriosis and its treatment with chemical and folk remedies
At high humidity, and warm weather putrefactive bacteria penetrate the scales of onions and infect a healthy fetus.
To provoke the emergence of harmful bacteria on the soil can remnants of last year's fruit, so the beds after harvest must necessarily dig up. Onion stripping is done on the infected site not earlier than in 4 years.Bacteriosis
Fusarium rot and how to get rid of it in spring and autumn
The disease is infectious, the pathogen is in the ground, where infection occurs. Donets of the turnip during the developmental period are affected by rot, as a result of which the greens, and then the root part, perish first. Among the reasons that provoke the formation in the soil of the pathogen:
- waterlogging during irrigation;
- harvesting in rainy weather;
- late harvesting;
- drought during ripening.
As a preventive measure, the following procedures are recommended:
- before planting sevok it is necessary to disinfect;
- when choosing seeds, preference should be given to early-ripening and mid-ripening species (they are less likely to be infected);
- observe the norms of watering, avoid over-wetting the soil;
- root crops should be collected in dry weather.
If you identify a diseased onion, you should remove it from the garden and treat the soil with Bordeaux mortar (1%).Fusarium rot
Bacterial rot of onion testes
Often, the rot affects the turnip with an excess of moisture in the soil. The reason is the prolonged rains and the type of soil that impedes the rapid absorption of precipitation. First, the mold is formed in the neck of the onion, lowering over time on the testes. Such a harvest cannot be stored for a long time, the process of decay cannot be stopped.
Experts recommend to follow the following rules for prevention:
- before planting sevok need to disinfect;
- irrigation to be carried out under the constant control of the degree of soil moisture;
- regularly carry out cleaning of beds from affected plants;
- harvest should be only in dry weather;
- ensure proper storage conditions with temperature from + 5 ° to + 8 ° and airing.
The main pests of onions and protection from them
Not only diseases can reduce yields, but also various pests that prefer to be populated with onions.
How to deal with onion fly?
What does a parasite look like? Externally, the onion fly (carrot) is practically no different from ordinary insects, but its great passion for onions can ruin the crop. She flies with the beginning of flowering dandelions and appears in the gardens. The fight against pests should start with prevention, it will allow to grow environmentally friendly fruits. When insecticides are used, toxic substances are accumulated in plants and soil, therefore they are undesirable. When disembarking and caring for onions, you must observe the following rules:
- Before planting, sevok should be prepared: warm it up for several days at a temperature of 23-25 °, soak in saline solution (1 liter of water for 1 tbsp. Salt) - 3 hours, then repeat the procedure, but in a manganese bath - 2 hours
- Place for beds to choose well-ventilated. It is recommended to have a bow and carrot in the neighborhood. For both crops, this will provide additional protection against pests.
- Annually change the place for planting onions. In the late autumn, when frost occurs, it is necessary to dig up the ground well so that the harmful bacteria and larvae die.
In order not to use chemicals, many gardeners use folk methods. The most effective are:
- a solution based on ammonia (for 10 liters of water they take 3 drops of iodine, 1 ml of ammonia, several crystals of potassium permanganate);
- tincture of fragrant herbs (for 10 liters of boiling water add a few sprigs of valerian, wormwood, mint);
- coniferous broth (in 10 l of water brew half a bucket of spruce or pine needles);
- wood ash powder;
- powder from ash, red hot pepper, tobacco leaves.
In addition to the above methods, the bed can be treated with salt at the rate of 300 g of salt per bucket of water. The main thing that should not be forgotten when using this method is to spray the onions with clean water to wash the salt off the feathers. When successfully processed, the flies will stop flying over the onions and will not lay eggs in the garden beds.
In addition, piperazine helps to cope with the pest. It is applied at the rate of 1 packing on a bucket of water. It is necessary to splash all the affected areas.
Presowing treatment of onion seed from an onion fly is carried out in early spring. It is necessary to sprinkle the whole bed. The drug Zemlin also helps in the fight against the pest, as you can always learn how to make it in the instructions.
Onion mite and processing from it
Before planting onions, the soil is fertilized. That such an environment chooses a tick. To determine the insidious pest in the garden can be on the basis of characteristic features:
- deformation of feathers with the formation of white bloom on them;
- shrinkage of the plant due to loss of moisture;
- the formation of mold and fungus.
The fight against ticks is a long and laborious process, because the parasite can sleep and wake up for a long time under favorable conditions. It is more efficient to use several methods at the same time. In case of late detection of insects or signs of their presence, acaricides and insectoacaricides should be used (Ditox, DI-68, Nugor, Fostran, Dimethoat-400, ProProgor, Danadim, Kinfos). These are potent chemicals, so you need to prepare the solution, strictly following the instructions.
In order to prevent pests, the following methods are used:
- careful re-stocking of seed during storage;
- preparation of planting for planting (sorting and heating);
- disinfection procedure;
- regular treatment of beds with herbs decoction, nettle infusion.
The insect female lays the larvae inside the onion feather. The parasites feed on the sap of the plant, as a result of which the green is covered with yellow spots and dries out. A featherless turnip develops very slowly. The root crop as a result will not meet the quality standards for taste and dimensional data.
To prevent the settlement of thrips on the onion beds, it is recommended to carry out the following activities:
- annually change the place of planting onions in the garden;
- store planting material under proper conditions;
- follow the rules of preparation and planting sevka;
- removal from the bed of the entire crop and tops;
- digging the soil in late autumn.
How to process onions?
In case of large-scale destruction of the plantation, special preparations are used:
- Golden Spark;
- Zeon and others
You can also try folk methods:
- placement between the beds of adhesive tape for flies as traps;
- planting nearby onion plantation of fragrant herbs, marigold flowers;
- spraying infusion of tobacco leaves (insist 3 hours);
- processing plants infusion on the leaves of celandine (insist 48 hours).
The reasons why the onion is yellow in the garden and what can be done
Not always yellowed spots on the winter onions indicate the presence of diseases or pests. Sometimes the cause may be a lack of nitrogen in the soil. To remedy the situation is quite simple - to introduce nitrogen-containing fertilizers into the soil. For these purposes can be used organic and mineral bait. You can feed a green vegetable and ammonia. It is an excellent fertilizer, and also allows you to get rid of flies and other pests.
It is necessary to water ammonium nitrate with care according to the instruction. In addition, you can pour and spray onions with kerosene. It allows you to protect the crop from onion flies. Treat the beds need to calculate 2 tbsp. kerosene on a bucket of water. This measure will help to preserve the harvest and you can not be afraid of repetition of infection.
Yellow feathers may also indicate inadequate care of the crop. Each variety has features of cultivation. Planting different species, few people are interested in the intricacies of growing a certain hybrid. Experienced gardeners recommend in the selection process to get acquainted with the description of the plant and the rules of care.Yellow onions in the garden
Adverse weather conditions can provoke the formation of yellowness on the batun. As a result of prolonged rains, feathers change color, deform. Or from too hot summer under the influence of intense sunlight, feathers begin to dry out prematurely. Help in such cases, the plants can cover the film or agrofibre. Treatment in this case is not required. Fertilize the vegetable should be in normal mode.
Early diagnosis of the problem will help save not only the harvest, but also prevent infection of the soil. Delay processing is not worth it, because pests and diseases are very intensively ruining plants.