Potatoes are a root crop, which is planted by all owners of vegetable gardens and summer cottages. The method of cultivation, the time of harvesting and planting depends largely on the region, therefore gardeners have many questions in this regard. When planting potatoes in the Moscow region, you need to strictly monitor the temperature, and also know whether you can plant tubers without sprouts, and if they are, do it with long sprouts up or down.
Earth and air temperature for planting potatoes
If you plant potatoes at a soil temperature of 11-12 degrees, the seedlings will appear on the 23rd day, 14-15 degrees - on the 17-18 day etc.
The buds of the eyes of potatoes “awaken” at an air temperature of 5 degrees, but in order to avoid illnesses, it is better to wait for the air to warm up. 12-15 degrees.Buds of potato eyes awaken at a temperature of +5 degrees
Popular methods for determining optimal weather
When planting potatoes, people are guided by the time of flowering of apricots and bird cherry. Also pay attention to the appearance of small leaves on the birch. This indicates that the soil and air warmed up well.
Permissible soil moisture
The need for potato tubers in moisture at different periods of development is different. In the period of germination, at the beginning of the formation of the tops, the need for moisture is minimal.
After the onset of flowering and the appearance of tops, it increases significantly. During landing soil moisture should not exceed 75%, otherwise the fruit will simply rot.
Planting tubers without sprouts
Before planting potatoes, it is recommended to germinate in a warm room so that sprouts appear on the tubers. Due to this, the root fruit is better. However, not only this parameter affects the quality and quantity of the crop, so there is no clear correlation here.
If the soil is fertile and the climatic conditions are good, then it is possible do without pre-germination.If the soil for planting is fertile - you can do without preliminary germination
Is it possible to plant not sprouted potatoes
The exact answer is difficult to give. If other landing conditions are observed, then it will sprout already in the ground, release the leaves and yield a crop.
How to plant tubers without sprouts step by step
- Sort through the potatoes, discard all substandard fruits. For sprouting potatoes keep 1-2 weeks in a warm room, but if you plan to plant it without sprouts, then you do not need to do this. You can proceed to disembarkation immediately after you have taken it from the basement or purchased it in a store.
- Further landing technology is almost the same as the classic one. Since you do not have sprouts, you can put the fruit in the hole either side. Do not forget that you need to fertilize potatoes and spud in time. Another important point is regular watering.
Consider that a potato that has been planted without fruit needs more time to ripen.Potatoes planted without sprouts need more time to ripen
Planting technology of sprouted root crops
By planting potatoes with eyes begin to cook in early spring in the last days of February. Fruits are picked, only selected. the strongest and highest quality. If there are sprouts, you need to pick them off.
Arrange the potatoes in small boxes of 3-4 layers and transfer to a warm place. It is important that the tubers are well lit by indirect sunlight.
Planted sprouted potatoes are planted. in late March-early April. The exact time depends on the weather conditions.
A day before planting, dip crates of sprouted potatoes into a solution prepared from 10 liters of water, 1 tsp. copper sulphate and boric acid. Water should have a deep pink color. Leave the box in the solution for 10-15 minutes. In the same solution can be processed and the rest of the boxes. Prepared potatoes put dry under a canopy.
The landing itself is carried out the next day. Sprouted potatoes are planted in the wells, planting depth 16 cm. Between the rows it is necessary to maintain an optimal distance in 60 cm.Landing is done in the depth of 16 cm
Immediately after the appearance of the first shoots, make a shallow loosening with motoblock. After the bushes grow to 10-15 cm spend the second loosening. Be sure to free the soil from the grass. Throw it away is not necessary, spread out between the beds.
After the bushes reach a height of 20 cm, make a deep hilling. If there are bushes with signs of disease. Start mass cleaning at the end of July. The leaves are completely dry.Upon reaching the length of the tops of 20 cm is hilling
How to plant sprouted potatoes
Traditionally, potatoes are planted sprouts up. It is believed that sprouts are pulled out faster and foliage appears on them. However, to achieve a good harvest, as you can when planting potatoes sprouts down and potatoes sprouts up. When choosing a suitable method, it is necessary to take into account several important factors.
- If you plan to plant potatoes early when the earth has not had time to warm up enough, then spread tubers should be sprouted down.
- If you are used to plant potatoes shallowly, then you fit the way of planting sprouts up.
The advantages of planting sprouts down:
- Sprouts grow in different directions, do not accumulate and do not "gather" in one pile. Thanks to this they don't interfere with each other and get enough nutrition.
- The first leaves appear later than when planting sprouts up. This allows them to easily survive the threat of frost.
- It is impossible to plant tubers deeply, since sprouts need to be “done a long way”.
- The soil for planting should have a sufficient level of moisture. To do this, it is enough to mulch the soil with a layer of grass.
Plant some of the beds with fruits, placing them with sprouts down, and some with fruits, placing them with germs up. At the end of the season you will understand exactly which landing method suits you best.
With long spikes
If the potatoes were stored in too warm roomlong sprouts appear on it. This is not very good, since the fruit itself spends on the germination of power and loses its elasticity.
If the length of sprouts more than 10 cm, the potato is not suitable for planting. If sprouts are smaller, then fruits should be carefully prepared for planting so that they give a rich harvest.
First, cut off the longest sprouts and leave only those whose length does not exceed 3 cm. In the upper part of the root is desirable not to break off the sprouts.If sprouts are longer than 10 cm - the tubers are unsuitable for planting
Put the treated tubers in a box, provide them with diffused sunlight. The temperature in the room for the storage of potatoes should be 13-16 degrees. After 14 days, the tubers will be fully prepared for planting. 1-2 times a day, irrigate the tubers with water so that the sprouts are not planted. Prepared potatoes are planted according to the classical scheme.
Landing conditions in the Moscow region
Each region has its own climatic features, which must be taken into account when planting potatoes. The Moscow region is a rather cool region, therefore with landing do not rush.
The main condition for good potato shoots is heated soil. Here it is appropriate to focus on the appearance of leaves in bird cherry and birch. In Moscow it happens at the end of May.
Great importance on the timing of planting potatoes in the suburbs has soil moisture. In May, the soil moisture is sufficient for planting potatoes, but in June, the soil becomes too dry. For this reason, it is not worth delaying the planting of potatoes until the beginning of June.June 1-5 - the deadline for planting potatoes in the suburbs
June 1-5 - This is the deadline for planting potatoes in the suburbs. In very dry soil, potato tubers feel bad, so there is a high probability that they will not germinate at all.
If the soil moisture is sufficient, and the weather is good, then it is possible to plant potato tubers in the suburbs at a depth of 10-15 cm.
Landing with sideratami
The growth of potatoes has a positive effect nitrogen and phosphorus. These nutrients in large quantities are found in legumes: vetch, peas, sweet clover and alfalfa. Before planting, you can also use wheat, mustard, colza, etc. Plants not only enrich the soil, but also protect it from leaching and deflation.
White mustard has another useful property - it repels pests. With the same task fine beans. It should be planted between the rows of potatoes. But after the potatoes, you can plant cabbage. At the place where he grew, she will give a rich and very high-quality harvest.
- White mustard between potatoes perfectly repels pests
- Beans between potatoes as a siderata
How to use siderats
Grown up plants need regular watering. They spill out 1.5 months before the onset of cold weather. From 100 g to 2 kg of green manure seeds will be needed for a hundred of land.
If you fail to plant the plants in the fall, you can do it in early May. Siderates should be cut a couple of weeks before the intended planting of potatoes. During this time, they must foul and enrich the soil.
The technique received the name - without club. It is not new, but for some reason rarely used by gardeners. This method was used by breeders when they wanted to quickly propagate a valuable variety.
What they were doing? Separated sprouts from potato tuber and planted them in the warmed ground. Modern experiments have shown that the quantity and quality of the crop when planting potatoes with sprouts is the same as when planting tubers.
On potato tubers there are 2 types of sprouts: light and shadow. The first are formed as a result of keeping the potatoes in the sun, and the second - as a result of keeping them in the basement.
For breeding most often used shadow shoots. They have a very delicate structure, so you can not keep them at high temperatures. They should be planted immediately after separation from the tubers. For planting it is better to use sprouts with a length of 6-8 cm. Light sprouts are strong, therefore they are very productive.
It begins for 30-45 days before the proposed planting of potatoes. Seed tubers are selected first. Preference is better to give mid-season varieties.
From the boards make a small box, install it on the south window-sill. Cover the bottom with sand, place cups filled with nutritious mixture on top. There should also be sand drainage at the bottom. It will protect the soil from drying out. Soil cups pour a solution of boric acid or potassium permanganate.
Planting seed tubers
In the first row of cups (the one closest to the window), use for planting seeds. Make indentations here, plant tubers. Wait until sprouts appear on them. 6-7 cm. Cut them off and transfer them to the cups of the next two rows.
Water the seeds 2-3 times a week. After rooting, transplant them to a permanent place.
After the first rain spud potatoes. In dry weather, beds are enough to loosen. Be sure to remove the weeds that do not give the plants to fully grow. After 2-3 weeks, spend the second feeding and spud them again. It is better to plant potatoes in this way after May 10th.
As soon as the tops have begun to dry, you can proceed to harvest. About this comes after 50-60 days. Time to harvest the potatoes can not, because the fruits are reduced in volume, lose their density and nutrients.
Proper preparation and planting of potatoes is the key to getting a good harvest. It is important to take into account the temperature of the air and soil, soil moisture, planting depth, variety of tubers, location of sprouts.
Landing time is largely determined by the climatic features of the region. Pay attention to details, and you will enjoy delicious home-grown potatoes.