In the wild, the vegetable grew many centuries ago, but appeared in Russia only in the 17-18 centuries. The usefulness of eggplant was not immediately appreciated, but wariness soon gave way to great popularity. And the ability of the product to reduce cholesterol, improve heart function and regulate the water balance in the body has played a significant role in this. For successful cultivation in the open field, you must follow the rules of care - you need to love and care for the eggplant, grow seedlings under the necessary conditions, add dressing or cover with frost.
Where can I grow eggplants in the open field
The cultivation conditions for eggplants are somewhat different from the cultivation of other vegetable crops. The main differences are as follows:
- yield is provided only on fertile soils with a light structure;
- even short frosts are excluded after landing;
- the temperature minimum at which the plant slows down development is +20 degrees;
- the length of daylight should be within 12 hours;
- reaction to the lack of moisture - dropping the buds and ovaries.
Growing in Siberia
It is unlikely that it would be possible to grow in open ground in Siberia ordinary varieties that were cultivated exclusively in the southern countries.
Thanks to many years of work, breeders managed to produce quite a lot of hybrids that differ cold resistance and short aging times and they can be grown not only in the Kuban.
Popular varieties include Matrosik, the Nutcracker, the Violet Miracle, Robin Hood.
- Purple miracle
- Robin Hood
In the Urals
In the presence of strict conditions, getting a harvest of blue ones in the Urals is considered a great success. For planting selected varieties with maturity no more than 95 days. But even this factor does not guarantee success, because the whole thing is in agricultural technology. It should be aimed at accelerating growth.
Popular varieties are: Clorinda, Helios, Epic.
In the Moscow region
With the right selection of varieties and hybrids, you can plant eggplant in the suburbs and in the suburbs. Many summer residents of the Moscow Region have already managed to verify this.
Planting is done using the rassadny method in mid or late Maywhen the threat of night frosts, which may be in the spring, has passed. Among the popular varieties: Marathon runner, Kashalot, Balagur, Alekseevsky.
- Marathon runner
- Sperm whale
Terms for planting eggplant in open ground
Given the climatic features of our country, the cultivation of eggplants in open beds is carried out by seedling. Seeds need to be planted in boxes or containers. in late March. By the time the seedlings are transferred to the open ground, 3-5 leaves will be formed, the stem and the root system will be strengthened.
Planting eggplant seedlings in open ground can be planned in the second half of may. Works can be carried out only in case of establishment of night temperature. not below 15 degrees.
Experienced gardeners are not advised to hurry with the planting of seedlings, since at low temperatures it will not develop anyway, and it will completely die at frost. But while perederzhivat seedlings in a greenhouse or other room is also dangerous.
Transplant need to perform before budding. If the young shoots have already formed the ovary, the culture will be more difficult to adapt to new conditions, it will become vulnerable to any diseases.Transplantation of seedlings to the ground must be done before the budding period.
To get a good harvest, you must follow all the rules of agrotechnology. One of the most important stages is planting culture.
The right choice of seeds and seedlings
Seeds before planting go through the preparatory process:
- disinfection (soaking for 25 minutes in a weak solution of potassium permanganate, followed by rinsing);
- treatment with nutrients to stimulate growth (planting material is dipped for a day in a solution that is prepared from 1 liter of water 25-28 degrees and 1 tsp. nitrophoska);
- germination (seed moistening and keeping 1-2 days in a humid environment at a temperature of 30 degrees).
Pre-preparation may include hardening of seeds. To do this, they are placed for 2 days in a refrigerator (vegetable compartment), then kept for a day at 18 degrees, and then returned to cold place for 2 days.
After reaching young shoots of a height of 10 cm and the formation of 5-7 leaves, it is planned to transplant into open ground. 10-14 days before this, the seedlings are hardened, that is, they are daily taken out into the open air (without direct sunlight and drafts) for several hours to adapt.
Soil preparation before planting in the holeEggplant beds should be well lit.
Place under the bed is selected well litIdeally, it will be protected from winds by neighboring artisanal plants.
Negatively predecessors such as: potatoes, peppers, physalis, tomatoes affect the growing season of eggplants. It is better to choose the area on which were grown: cabbage, cucumber, onions, perennial herbs.
Eggplants respond well to the fertile soil of light structure and neutral environment. If soil acidification is present, it is necessary to enter it before planting. dolomite flour or ground lime.
Fertilizers are used as organic (rotted manure 3-4 kg per 1 m2), and complex mineral substances (70 grams. Superphosphate, 50 grams. Potassium sulfate, 25 grams. Ammonium nitrate). Overdoing with nitrogen nutrition is not worth it, you can provoke the growth of foliage instead of forming ovaries.
The root system of culture grows in loose soil. If necessary, land relief is done on the beds by entering into it. peat, humus, river sand. All components or one of them are thoroughly mixed with the excavated soil and are well loosened with a rake.
Planted seedlings in the evening or in cloudy weather. The wells are arranged according to the following scheme:
- interval between plants in a row - 25-30 cm early varieties 35-40 cm middle and late varieties;
- interrow - 55-70 cm.
Eggplant care during the summer
Seedlings take root in a new place is not easy, so from the first days you need to ensure proper care.
Watering is carried out with approximately warmed up heated water. 1-2 times a week (before flowering), you need to focus on the degree of soil moisture. On 1 m2 the consumption rate is 10 l.
With the beginning of flowering and fruiting irrigation is carried out at the root. If it is not possible to moisten the bed more than once a week, then the water consumption rate should be increased.
Eggplants are ideally developed at an average temperature of 23-26 degrees, so it is better not to allow either freezing or overheating. Recommended for protection from cold use film or agrotextiles. In extreme heat, light shading should be constructed so that the plants do not get burned or simply do not dry out.Before flowering, watering is carried out with separated water 1-2 times a week.
After reaching the escape of 30 cm do pinch - remove the top of the bush. From side shoots should be left 5-6 the most healthy and strong, get rid of the rest. Masking is not carried out if the summer is very hot and dry.
Once a week is recommended soil looseningto prevent clumping. This process is combined with weeding. Weeds create many problems with diseases and attract pests, so they should be dealt with in a timely manner.
How to feed after planting a garden bed
During the growing season they will need to feed at least 3 times. The first dose of nutrition is made 20 days after planting the seedlings. The second time you need to fertilize in 3-4 weeks. The third time to feed the beds during the fruiting period.
For a normal growing season, the plant requires the following minerals:
- nitrogen - stimulates the growth of shoots (top-dressing at the initial stage of development);
- phosphorus - helps to strengthen the root system, the formation of ovaries and fruits (used at all stages);
- potassium - strengthens the immune system, stimulates growth, gives resistance to culture to temperature changes and adverse weather conditions;
- boron, manganese, iron - increase the fruiting period.
Among the popular fertilizers of this type: superphosphate, nitrophoska, ammonium sulfate, potassium nitrate.
Manure, better rotted, is used for the first and second feeding. No less nutritious are:
- bird droppings;
What folk remedies to add to growth
Among the popular recipes there are a lot of effective, time-tested. For example, mushroom infusionwhich stimulates the growth of culture. To prepare the working solution, you will need to pour ½ cup of dried mushrooms with a bucket of warm water and leave to infuse for a day.
Ash liquid (for a bucket of water, 1-2 glasses of wood ash) is also popular among gardeners.
And along with it, you can put yeast dressingconducive to the growth of young shoots. For the preparation of fertilizers use a kilogram pack of live yeast, which is poured 5 liters of water at room temperature. After a day, the resulting liquid is diluted with water (1:10) and the plants are watered at the root with it.Yeast dressing
For the preparation of fertilizers, different plants are used, the composition of which is rich in valuable trace elements necessary for the active development of eggplants and that they are plump.
Among the famous recipes:
- glass dandelions pour 2 liters of boiling water and cover with a lid, after 3-4 hours, add 7 liters of water and use for feeding;
- pharmacy daisy (1 cup) pour 1 l of hot water, insist day, diluted with 9 l of water;
- crushed eggshell pour a bucket of water and insist for 1-2 days, then you can put the solution in the hole or water the plant.
Pests and control of them
- Colorado potato beetle is the most dangerous pest of eggplants
- Spider mite
The most dangerous is considered Colorado beetle. When settling on the bed in a few days you can see abundant bald spots, gluttonous parasite literally gnaws the shoots.
To overcome the beetle will help processing with the use of special chemicals or dusting salty flour, wood ash, spraying infusion of wormwood.
Harvest damage can also bedbugs and spider mites. For the prevention of the beds are sprayed with infusions of onions or dandelion (with the addition of laundry soap). With the mass colonization of parasites use the means: Prestige, Zircon, Fitosporin, etc.
Harvesting and storage rules
The first thing that gardeners are focused on when determining the maturity of eggplant is growing season:
- early varieties - 90-110 days;
- medium varieties - 115-130 days;
- late varieties - 130-140 days.
The time of aging can vary, which is influenced simultaneously by several factors: agricultural engineering, weather conditions, observance of planting dates.
There are no obvious signs of ripeness in a vegetable other than the growing season; mainly they take into account fetal length. Standards exist for each variety, and they should be relied upon. Color is not considered a sign, as it takes on the usual tonality in the early stages of maturation.Eggplant color is not considered a sign of maturity.
Define ripeness can be simple pushing on eggplant. If the skin has bent, but quickly took the original form - the vegetable is ripe.
In order to increase the shelf life of eggplant, you need to select the most healthy specimens without signs of deformation and damage. You can fold the vegetables in boxes, shifting them with straw or parchment. Fruits are stored in a cool, dark place.
A capricious and sensitive vegetable with unique nutritional and taste qualities is quite possible to grow on your own plot if you follow the rules of agricultural technology. And with proper storage, hold part of the harvest to the New Year's table.