Even experienced growers find that the season is coming to an end, and on the vine there are still immature clusters of grapes. What is the reason, how to avoid this in the future and what to do with unripe berries in the present? Let's try to figure it out.
Causes of Unripe Grapes
There are several reasons for the berries to ripen. Let's take a closer look at each.
The variety is selected without regard to growing conditions.
Before planting any variety, it is necessary to specify whether this variety is suitable for growth in this region in terms of aging and climatic conditions. It happens that the vine simply does not have enough time and warm weather to fully mature.
During the period of grape growing, the most important factor affecting the yield and taste of fruits is temperature. As far as the temperature of the air and the soil is appropriate, the yield will ultimately be productive. Deviations from the permissible norms adversely affect the growth and ripening of berries.
One of these techniques is planting vines near brick fences or walls of houses located on the south side. The secret lies in the fact that during the day the masonry is well heated in the sun, and at night it gradually gives off heat to the vines.
Another method for raising the temperature is the use of black mulching materials that are laid out between the rows and bushes of grapes. Using black stones, laid out under the bushes. All these materials serve as a kind of heat accumulators.It is very important to consider the characteristics of the selected variety and its resistance to frost before planting.
The winegrowers of the northern regions have their own interesting ideas. They use large, strong black bags filled with hot water. Such bags, arranged between rows of grapes on both sides, are capable of raising the temperature of the soil and air by 5 degrees.
In addition, if the temperature exceeds 30 degrees at the time of flowering, the pollen becomes sterile and unsuitable for fertilization.
Overloading vines with fruits
This may be the second cause of crop immaturity. When the ovaries of the fruit on the vine are larger than it is able to provide with the necessary trace elements, this problem is observed. This applies to table grapes. Such varieties require fruit normalization. If you do not ration the fruit, then the harvest will not only not reach maturity, but later the bush will be exhausted, the plant will not be prepared for wintering.Some varieties can not cope with a large number of berries on the vine, so they need to be removed.
Pests and diseases
Also can be another reason for poor ripening. In diseases mainly affects the green mass of the bush. At the same time, the diseased leaves start to dry and fall off. The loss of green mass leads to the fact that slows down the process of photosynthesis. This produces a very small amount of nutrients, which slows the growth of shoots, and therefore, the period of ripening of fruits is delayed.
With abundant nitrogen fertilization, there is a rapid development of shoots and the root system of the bush. This reduces the number of fruits, the period of ripening of berries is delayed and the taste is deteriorating.
Also can cause poor ripening. To determine their presence is simple. Vines begin to entangle the grass and pull out all the juice from them. It is necessary to regularly weed weeds, which draw nutrients from the soil and limit the access of sunlight to the fruit.Overgrown grapes are not able to ripen the berries on their own
Crop normalization: how and when to use
The yield can be normalized before the beginning of the flowering period. It is necessary to visually assess the number of inflorescences on individual shoots. Then you should completely or partially remove a certain number of inflorescences. If this procedure is carried out at an early date, then all the nutrients will flow to the left clusters.
The bush will not spend extra strength on the clusters, which will then have to be removed.
The following solution will be more reasonable:
- on the adult vine to conduct early normalization during the formation of inflorescences;
- for younger vines, normalize at the end of the flowering period, when the result will be visually visible.
Normalization is recommended, given the workings of experienced winegrowers. It is noticed that one well-developed escape with a length of 1.5 meters is able to provide useful substances to a bunch weighing no more than 500 grams.
- on table varieties with large bottoms, where the mass of each brush is more than 750 grams, leave 1 brush to escape;
- for table varieties with a brush weight of 500 grams, two brushes are left on one shoot;
- in technical varieties, where the weight of the brush 210 grams set aside on one shoot 3-4kisti;
- on varieties where the brush mass of more than 1500 grams leaves one brush to escape, and on every third brush all clusters are removed.
Maturation in polycarbonate
One of the modern methods of solving this problem is the method of constructing polycarbonate shelters, in which the ripening of the immature vine in the autumn period takes place. The essence of this method is as follows:
- it is necessary to dig a trench and lay the bottom of the polycarbonate;
- cut thin shoots;
- Lay the vine in a trench and cover it with a polycarbonate sheet.
This design creates a greenhouse effect inside and retains heat for a long time. This allows the vine to fully ripen. If there is no polycarbonate, black polyethylene can be used.
One of the methods of accelerating the ripening of the vine is chasing. This procedure is to remove the tops of shoots grown to 1.5 meters. After pruning begins active intake of micronutrients to the adult part of the bush. This leads to lignification of the vine, which helps to successfully survive the winter.Chasing accelerates the ripening of grapes
Harvesting a piece of unripe harvest
Accelerate the aging process by collecting part of the crop. If the crop does not ripen within a certain period, it is necessary to leave one bunch on each shoot. Extra clusters need to be removed from the shoot, or to remove some of the berries on the brush. Not only unripe berries can be removed in clusters, but also those spoiled by wasps or withered.
Important! For ripening vines enough to clean one fifth of the brushes.
Application of unripe grapes
Do not rush to throw out unripe grape clusters with stones. They can find a very extensive use and make a lot of blanks at home:
- make wine;
- cook jam or jam;
- cook the sauce;
- boil the juice.
It is necessary to peel the unripe brushes in a metal container (the container should be enameled. Aluminum or copper utensils are not allowed). Berries need to be well mashed. The resulting pulp should be heated on fire to 60 degrees, remove from heat, cool to 25 degrees, fold in a colander and squeeze the juice. If the juice is sour, sugar and berry yeast are added to it.
Fermentation should be carried out at a temperature of 20 degrees for a month. After two months, the wine will brighten and a precipitate forms at the bottom. Carefully drain the wine, leaving the sediment in the tank. Wine will be unpleasant to the taste and sweets will not be felt in it. At this point, you need to add sugar at the rate of 100-150 grams per 1 liter, stir until sugar is completely dissolved. Then bottle it. Dessert wine is recommended to stand at room temperature for two months before use.Wine - one of the options for the use of immature grapes
How to make jam and jelly
To make jam you need the following ingredients:
- grapes-1 kilogram;
- sugar-0.8 kg;
- water is 300 grams;
- Vanillin-1 gram.
- To sort grapes, to wash, to lay out on a colander, until complete runoff of water;
- Dip berries in boiling water for 1 minute, then dip in ice water, wait until water runs out;
- Prepare a syrup, boil it for two minutes, lay berries in it, remove from the heat for 6 hours.
- After 6 hours, put the container with the grapes on the fire, bring to a boil and boil for ten minutes. Remove from heat and set aside for eight hours.
- After eight hours, the grapes are boiled again for ten minutes, set aside for eight hours;
- After this period of time, they boil again for 10 minutes, put vanilla, lay out in sterile jars and roll.
Homemade juice from unripe berries
- grapes, 3 kilograms;
- sugar-200 grams.
- Berries are washed, thrown back in a colander, allowed to drain water;
- Grind in a meat grinder;
- The resulting mass grind through a sieve and fold back the pulp;
- Squeeze through gauze, add cooled boiled water, at the rate of: per ten kg of mash one liter of water;
- Squeeze and mix the resulting juice with the rest of the juice;
- Put the container on the fire and pasteurize it for 15 minutes at a temperature of 80 degrees. Do not bring to a boil;
- Add sugar, bring to a boil, pour into sterile jars and roll up.
How can I cook the sauce for meat
- grapes, 0.5 kg;
- cilantro-1 bundle;
- garlic-2 cloves;
- salt to taste.
- knead not ripe grapes with a wooden pestle;
- squeeze the juice;
- crushed garlic, cilantro and salt mix with juice;
- bring to a boil and cool to room temperature.
Use almost ripe berries as a seasoning for meat, fish and seafood.Meat Grape Sauce
Unripe Berry Vinegar
Knead immature grapes, squeeze the juice and pour into plastic bottles. Do not fill up to the top of the bottle 8-10 cm. Close the bottle tightly and place in a warm place or in the sun for a month and a half. A month later, gently open the bottle and remove the sample.
Open the bottle carefully, as the effect will be like that of sparkling water. It turns out a neutral, very delicate taste. Isabella ripe grapes are not suitable for this purpose, as mature grapes will make wine.
Even immature grapes can be used. You can make jams, jellies from it, you can marinate and make jam from it.