Almost every summer resident and gardener wants his garden to always be fertile and high-yielding. But besides the right care, you need to choose varieties with good characteristics. This also applies to cherries. After all, how good it is when in the summer all the trees are covered with large red berries, which attracts with its beauty and pleasant aroma. In addition, it is important that the trees withstand severe frosts, which are characteristic of many regions of Russia.
Of course, There are no ideal varieties of cherries, but there are still more optimal ones that have good yields and are able to adapt to any weather conditions.. One of these varieties is the Ural Ruby cherry. The following is a description of this variety.
Characteristic varieties of cherries Ural Ruby
History of breeding and regions of growth
First the breeding of the Ural region N. Gvozdyukova began to breed this variety in 1950. During this period, she was engaged in her professional activity at the experimental gardening station of the Ural Research Institute of Agriculture in the city of Sverdlovsk, together with S. Zhukov, who was a representative of the Central Genetic Laboratory named after Kh. I.V. Michurin.Cherry Ural Ruby variety
Breeder N. Gvozdyukova in those years proposed to use as a base trees unknown Michurinsky varieties of cherrywhich later became the basis for breeding the Ruby variety. For the crossing of these seedlings, the planting of seeds of the local steppe variety Ideal was proposed.
As a result, a variety was obtained, which was bred and zoned in 1965. In the same year, the variety was entered into the State Register of Varieties in the Ural, Vyatka and West Siberian regions of Russia.
Nowadays, the Ural ruby variety grows in the following regions:
- In the Chelyabinsk region;
- In the Perm region;
- In the Sverdlovsk region.
The main qualities of the tree:
- it small bush with spreading branches;
- Size of tree height is about 1.5 meters, in rare cases it can reach up to 1.8-2 meters;
- Crown mean neglect. At the moment of formation it forms a whole shape with medium spreading branches;
- Characteristic of shoots. Annual growths and bouquet branches are considered fruitful;
- Leaves have a distinct shine. They have a broad lanceolate leathery type, shaped like a boat.
This variety of cherry is part of the samobosplodnyh varieties. The self-infertile variety means that the cherry has flowers with a specific type of structure, which prevents the development of the cherry by self-fertilizing its own pollen. therefore if the site does not grow pollinators, the tree will bloom beautifully every spring, but it will not yield.
For this reason, planting cherries of this variety, be sure to take care that the pollinators, specially designed specifically for this variety, also grow nearby.
However, despite this, this the variety itself acts as a good pollinator. For several decades, it has been used for growing and breeding various high-yielding varieties of cherries.
It has increased resistance to frost. This quality is the main condition for the cultivation of cherries in the Urals, where there is a cool and changeable climate. Wood and kidneys are particularly resistant to frost..
Low and almost unpretentious trees can quietly take root to the adverse conditions of climate and weather conditions.
In the process of breeding, it was possible to develop a variety that provides protection not only due to its increased frost resistance, but also through its flowering time. Usually flowering time comes in the spring after frost. Flowers appear in late spring, so they do not intersect with spring fluctuations in temperature conditions.
Period of flowering and ripening
The flowering season of the Ural Ruby cherry variety usually starts from May 30 to June 7-8.. Just at the time when all the frosts pass and a warm summer begins.Ural ruby cherry during flowering
The ripening of the fruit on the tree occurs at the same time, so you can see all the red berries on the tree at the time of ripening. Maturation occurs after August 15-17.
Productivity and lifetime
As soon as this variety was bred, everyone who grew it was convinced of its high yield. Usually you can get almost 6-7 kilograms of cherries from a single bush tree.One bush tree type of the Ural ruby cherry can produce up to 7 kg of berries
But there are some cases when at experimental stations, especially in central Russia, harvests of up to 14-15 kilograms per tree were recorded.
The period of full-fledged life of the Ural Rubin Cherry is about 24-30 years.
Ripe fruits have an attractive appearance. In shape, they are round with an average size. In the area of the suture and the stem there is a slight flattening.Ripe berries of the Ural ruby cherry
The size of the diameter of one ripe cherry is about 15-17 mm. The average weight of one berry is about 3.5-4 grams. Sometimes can grow instances weighing 5 grams. The color of the skin of a ripe fruit is dark red, the color of the pulp of a ripe fruit has the same color.
In addition, the pulp of ripe fruit has an average density and high juiciness. Ripe berry shows an increased level of cracking resistance.. Inside the fetus there is a small bone, which is quite easily behind the pulp of the berry. All fruits firmly cling to the branches due to slightly long stalks.
The advantages and disadvantages of the variety
The advantages include quality:
- Early fruiting. A full harvest can be obtained as early as 3 years after planting the seedlings;
- Long service life. One tree can grow for 24-30 years;
- High frost resistance. The tree can withstand frosts up to - 35 degrees Celsius;
- Can grow in regions with cold climates;
- Delicious fruits. The taste of sweet and sour cherry, and also it has high juiciness;
- Fruit can be used for making jam, juices, compotes, wine and other household preparations.
However, in addition to the advantages have disadvantages:
- Late fruiting. Harvest can be obtained in the middle or end of August;
- Low yield. From one tree can be removed only 5-7 kilograms of cherries;
- Self-infertility. Therefore, next to this variety of cherries, it is required to plant pollinators for the tree on your plot;
- High susceptibility to fungal disease - coccomycosis.
- Damage to cherry berries coccomycosis
- Cherry coccomycosis
Planting and care
It is advisable to plant seedlings on a plot with good ventilation and high solar illumination.
Besides it is important that in the place of growth is not observed close location of groundwater. In the spring, there should not be a stagnation of groundwater, which during this period protrude from under the ground.
Soil structure should have important qualities:
- High lightness;
- The soil must have a loamy structure.
It is recommended to plant a Ural Ruby cherry in springbefore blooming buds or in autumn, preferably not later than October.
- It is recommended to plant seedlings from each other. at least 2 meters away;
- Landing hole dug to a depth of 50 cmand the size of the diameter should be 50 cm;
- A fertile mix is surely placed on the bottom., which should consist of 20 grams of potassium chloride, 30-40 grams of superphosphate, as well as ash. If the soil is clay, then it should be poured around a bucket of sand;
- Into the hole should drive a peg. He will hold a tree that has not yet become stronger;
- Before landing you need soak the roots of seedlings in water and hold there, about 3 hours;
- Next, seedlings are lowered into the hole and covered with soil. Everything is good ramming;
- Near the base of the tree round roller is formed of earth with a diameter of 50-60 cm;
- Poured tree separated water in the amount of 2-3 buckets;
- At the end of the base of the tree covered with mulch from sawdust and compost.
Care consists of following the recommendations:
- Be sure to hold a regular soil irrigation;
- Loosening basal circle;
- Held circumcision dead and very long branches;
- Done periodic feeding and fertilizing the soil at the roots of the tree;
- In the fall, right while digging the soil potash and phosphate fertilizer mixtures are introduced;
- Organic fertilizer blends - manure, compost should be applied at least once every 4 months;
- In the spring nitrogenous fertilizer mixtures are brought under the tree trunk.
Peculiarities of this variety
The characteristics of this variety include the following characteristics:
- Early fruiting. A good harvest is obtained in the third year after disembarkation;
- Small trees in the form of shrubs. The height of an adult tree is from 1.5 to 2 meters;
- Long life, almost 30 years;
- Frost resistance, trees can withstand temperatures down to - 30 degrees Celsius;
- Late maturation, fruits ripen in the second half of August.
Diseases and pests
Cherry of this variety has a high resistance to such pests as cherry slimy sawfly and cherry shade.
However, the Cherry Ural Ruby variety is susceptible to such a fungal infection as coccomycosis. This defeat is highly dangerous, and if not treated appropriately, the tree may die.
The main characteristics of plant damage by coccomycosis:
- The presence of brown spots on the leaves;
- Leaves may become sluggish;
- Another factor indicating the presence of this disease is the friendly shedding of leaves.
After all the leaves fall off the tree becomes weak, it does not receive the necessary nutrients and after a certain period it dies.Cherry is affected by coccomycosis
To prevent this damage, wood is treated with fungicides.. Treatments are carried out three times per season. The first treatments are done before flowering, the second during flowering and the last after flowering in 2-3 weeks.
Cultivation of the Ural Ruby cherry requires great responsibility. It is important to choose a suitable place with fertile soil, and you need to comply with timely care - watering, fertilizer, pruning. If you fulfill all the requirements, then as a result you can get a high yield of good quality, which can be used to prepare various winter billets.