Hawthorn - deciduous shrub with a centuries-old history, which belongs to the family "Pink". It grows in the mountains and forests in temperate climates. Tree height reaches 5-8 m. This light-loving plant, hardy and unpretentious. In this article we will talk about the most popular varieties of this plant: the Crimean, Chinese, slivististny and others.
Hawthorn is considered one of the most beautiful plants. It is often used for decorative purposes. It has about 100 species worldwide. In Russia, there are 15 known species that perfectly take root and bloom.
Shrub height - 5 m. This type of hawthorn is hardy and resistant to cold. Suitable for cultivation in the suburbs and central Russia. It has bright red berries and yellow flesh. It survives well in stony and clayey areas. It makes beautiful hedges.
It is a shrub or tree that reaches 6 m in length. Spines rare, but long - 4 cm. From late spring to mid-summer, Siberian hawthorn has white flowers. Its fruits are bright red and round.. From the moment you reach the age of 7, it bears fruits that you can eat.
Semi softHalf hawthorn
Half hawthorn has orange-red berries and yellow flesh. It grows up to 8 m. The crowns are thick, covered with sharp prickles. Bears fruit with 6 age. The fruits and leaves of half-hawthorn are extremely beautiful. Therefore, this type is used as a decorative decoration of the garden, at home.
Green Myas (black)Green hawthorn
The flowers of the green-hawed hawthorn are white and have dark stamens. Black fruit and green flesh have a pleasant taste.. The hawthorn, like many other species, has spines. Chokeberry is common in Sakhalin and Kamchatka.
The bush of the single-hawk hawthorn has a dense crown. It is growing rapidly and looks great as a hedge. This species is valued for its healing properties and decoration..
Among the many types of hawthorn, each person will find one that suits him.
The varieties of hawthorn have differences in color, size, decorative features, fruiting. But all varieties are picky and resistant to cold and heat. They love the light, but can also grow on the shady side. Below are the most popular varieties of this plant.
This is a small tree growing in the Crimea. It is rare to find this variety away from other shrubs. He prefers to grow next to deciduous shrubs. It develops well on slopes and in rocky terrain.. People use flowers of the Crimean hawthorn and ripe fruit for medicinal purposes. They normalize the work of the cardiovascular system, as well as struggling with nervous disorders.
ChineseChinese hawthorn large-fruited
This variety is called Chinese, because it is common in China and Korea. But it can be found in the Far East. Most often grows in forests near the river. The neighbors of Chinese hawthorn are poplar, ash, and nut. This hawthorn variety is also considered light-requiring. It can reach 6 m. A distinctive feature of the Chinese hawthorn is that it lacks spines. Its leaves are bright green. They are covered with fine hairs. Have a sharp upper corner. The lower part of the leaves is painted in a lighter tone.
Hawthorn MaksimovicHawthorn Maksimovic
This variety is considered an ornamental plant. It is a tree that reaches 7 m. The crown of the tree resembles the tip of an egg. Its leaves are green. In the middle of October leaf fall begins. The flowering process lasts only 11 days. The flowers of Hawthorn Maksimovich large, white. The fruits are reddish and large. This variety bears fruit in August. Fruits are widely used in medicine, they are edible. Hawthorn Maksimovich loves the sun, but can grow in partial shade. The process of cutting is transferred to them easily.
Paul Scarlet (decorative tree)Hawthorn Flowers Paul Scarlet
This variety is particularly beautiful and decorative.. It has inflorescences in the form of an umbrella. Flowers shaggy, large. The leaves are dark green. Grows up to 4 m. Hairy branches. The crowns of Paul Scarlet are rounded. It has spines up to 1.8 cm. The leaves begin to bloom early. The process of leaf fall also begins early. It blooms in late spring and early summer. Fruits resemble an apple. They have a silver or red-brown color.
ArnoldArnold Hawthorn in bloom
The variety grows well in Siberia, despite the harsh Siberian climate. Reaches 6 m in length. It has orange fruit that can be eaten. The taste of Arnold is sweet and sour, the fruits are juicy. This variety appeared in America, but caught on in Russia, in particular, in Siberia. Known for its high content of vitamin C. Arnold gives a rich harvest. Its fruits can be consumed both raw and processed.
The foliage of a subsilant hawthorn is motley colored. The tree can reach 7 m in length. The branches are well branched, the crown is dense and asymmetric. Every year the crowns are getting denser. In summer, the leaves become dark green in color, and in autumn - bright orange or red. The lateral branches of the old lybifistnogo hawthorn hang slightly. This variety fruits a lot in early autumn, the fruits are bright red and round. Livolistny hawthorn has strong, strong roots.
Each hawthorn variety is unique in its own way and has a lot of advantages, including decorativeness, yield, and frost resistance.
For planting it is necessary to prepare a place on the sunny side, since the hawthorn is a light-loving plant. He is very unpretentious to the soil, but some recommendations still need to be considered.
Although hawthorn and not capricious, well acclimatized, yet it reacts poorly to drought and polluted air. It is possible to land hawthorn in the spring and in the fall. A pit 40 cm deep is enough, and a width of about 80 cm.
Hawthorn multiplies by seed, layering, grafting, dividing the bush. All of the above breeding methods have their own advantages and disadvantages. Allow to save hawthorn variety features.
For cuttings suitable young shoots. It is desirable to cut them off at an angle of 45 degrees. It is necessary to land in peat with sandusing root and moistening the soil.
LayeringHawthorn reproduction scheme by layering
The shoots at the age of 1-2 years old are placed in the ground so that the top is free. The process of securing the escape is carried out using a metal bracket. The beginning of the layering need to win over the wire. Reproduction by layering occurs in the spring months or early summer.
Cooking root cuttings need to fall. It is necessary to cut off parts of old roots and prikopat for the winter.. Plant in spring at an angle of 45 degrees. The thick part of the cutting must be completely submerged in the soil.
Seed propagation is a difficult process that takes time. The disadvantage of this type of reproduction is that it does not preserve the characteristics of the variety. The advantage of seed reproduction is the possibility of obtaining a large number of seedlings.Hawthorn Seeds
Birds help seedlings to breed in conditions of the natural environment. The main condition for reproduction is the preservation of the distinctive features of the hawthorn variety.
Application of fruits and leaves
Since ancient times, hawthorn is used in folk medicine, cosmetology, cooking and for decorative purposes. Hawthorn is not contraindicated for people suffering from diabetes. It removes harmful substances from the body, salts, cleansing it.
- Hawthorn take the elderly to strengthen the work of the cardiovascular system, improve blood circulation.
- Preparations made with hawthorn extract normalize pressurestrengthen the heart muscle.
- An important component of hawthorn is ursolic acid. She is dilates blood vessels, kills germs and viruses, relieves inflammation.
- Hawthorn is useful people with urinary tract diseases.
Tinctures, hawthorn decoctions are useful for heart defects and nervous disorders. Blood hawthorn infusion improves blood circulation. It also strengthens the walls of blood vessels, stimulates the heart.
From hawthorn prepare compote, jam, fruit drinks. This is an excellent ingredient for many desserts.
Hawthorn is an amazing plant with several advantages and benefits.. If you follow the recommendations above, you can get a rich harvest and use it with maximum benefit.